Salidroside is a phenolic substance with high solubility and low permeability, which make it easy to cause the efflux effect of p-glycoprotein and degradation of intestinal flora, resulting in lower bioavailability. The aim of this study was to develop and optimize a water-in-oil nanoemulsion of salidroside (w/o SAL-N) to explore its suitability in oral drug delivery systems. In this work, SAL-N was successfully prepared by water titration method at Km=1 to construct the pseudo-ternary phase diagrams. Physical characterization including the average viscosity, pH, refractive index, particle size, PDI, TEM, DSC, the content of SAL, and stability study were performed. It was evaluated for drug release in vitro and pharmacokinetic studies in vivo. The optimized nanoemulsion formulation consisted of Labrafil M 1944CS (63%), Span80/Tween80/EtOH (27%) and 200 mg/mL salidroside solution (SAL-SOL) (10%). Low viscosity and suitable pH were expected for the nanoemulsion. The spherical morphology and nanoscale size of SAL-N enhanced the stability of the nanoemulsion system. In vitro drug release showed that SAL-N had a better controlled release property than SAL-SOL at earlier time points. The pharmacokinetic studies exhibited that SAL-N had significantly higher in T1/2 (2.11-fold), AUC0-48h (1.75-fold) and MRT0-48h (2.63-fold) than SAL-SOL (p<0.01). The w/o SAL-N prepared in this work can be effectively delivered via the oral route. It can be seen w/o nanoemulsion is a strategy for the drug with polyphenols to delay the release, enhance oral absorption and reduce metabolic rate.
Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) is the bioactive ingredient in Glycyrrhizae Radx et Rhizoma. Our previous study has reported that GA has protective effect on realgar- induced hepatotoxicity. However, the details of the hepatoprotective mechanisms of GA on realgar-induced liver injury remain to be elucidated. In the study, mice were divided into control, GA-control, realgar, and co-treated groups. Their liver tissues were used for metabonomics study by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) method. The results illustrate that GA significantly ameliorate the liver injury and metabolic perturbations caused by realgar. Some metabolites, such as phenylalanine, pyroglutamic acid (PGA), proline, carnitine, nicotinamide, choline, lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) 16:0 and LPC 18:2 were found responsible for the hepatoprotective effect of GA. These metabolites are associated with the methylation metabolism of arsenic, cell membrane structure, energy metabolism and oxidative stress. From the results of this study, we infer that the potential hepatoprotective mechanism of GA on realgar-induced liver injury may be associated with reducing arsenic accumulation and its methylation metabolism in the liver, promoting the conjugation of arsenic and GSH to play detoxification effect, and ameliorating the liver metabolic perturbations caused by realgar.
American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) is a well-known Asian traditional herbal medicine with a large market demand. The plant is native to eastern North America, and its main producing areas worldwide are decreasing due to continuous cropping obstacles and environmental changes. Therefore, the identification of maximum similarities of new ecological distribution of P. quinquefolius, and prediction of its response to climate change in the future are necessary for plant introduction and cultivation. In this study, the areas with potential ecological suitability for P. quinquefolius were predicted using the geographic information system for global medicinal plants (GMPGIS) based on 476 occurrence points and 19 bioclimatic variables. The results indicate that the new ecologically suitable areas for P. quinquefolius are East Asia and the mid-eastern Europe, which are mainly distributed in China, Russia, Japan, Ukraine, Belarus, North Korean, South Korea, and Romania. Under global climate change scenarios, the suitable planting areas for P. quinquefolius would be increased by 9.16%–30.97%, and expanding north and west over the current ecologically suitable areas by 2070. The potential increased areas that are ecologically suitable include northern Canada, Eastern Europe, and the Lesser Khingan Mountains of China, and reduced regions are mainly in central China, the southern U.S., and southern Europe. Jackknife tests indicate that the precipitation of the warmest quarter was the important climatic factor controlling the distribution of P. quinquefolius. Our findings can be used as a useful guide for P. quinquefolius introduction and cultivation in ecologically suitable areas.