2020 Vol. 18, No. 1
Dendrobium, orchid, is a traditional Chinese herb medicine applied extensively as tonic and precious food for thou-sands of years recorded in ancient Chinese medical book “Shen Nong’s Materia Medica”. It’s well known that bioactivities are usually related to the ingredients’ basis. Based on the previous research, Dendrobium species contain amino acid, sesquiterpenoids, alkaloids and polysaccharides. As the bioactive substances, carbohydrate shows extensive activities in antitumor, antiglycation, immune-enhancing, antivirus, antioxidant, antitumor and etc. Therefore, as the main biologically active substance, the exact structures and latent activities of polysaccharides from Dendrobium species are widely focused on. In this review, we focus on the advancements of extraction methods and diversity of structures and bioactivities of polysaccharides obtained from Dendrobium species.
Neuropathic pain (NP) has become a serious global health issue and a huge clinical challenge without available effective treatment. P2 receptors family is involved in pain transmission and represents a promising target for pharmacological intervention. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) contains multiple components which are effective in targeting different pathological mechanisms involved in NP. Different from traditional analgesics, which target a single pathway, TCMs take the advantage of multiple components and multiple targets, and can significantly improve the efficacy of treatment and contribute to the prediction of the risks of NP. Compounds of TCM acting at nucleotide P2 receptors in neurons and glial cells could be considered as a potential research direction for moderating neuropathic pain. This review summarized the recently published data and highlighted several TCMs that relieved NP by acting at P2 receptors.
Given the rapid increase of patients with autoimmune diseases and the lack of satisfactory therapies, the discovery of novel and effective therapeutic targets have been in an urgent demand. Recent studies have revealed that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play crucial roles in the development of multiple sclerosis (MS), which provides a new opportunity of uncovering novel mechanism associated with the progression of MS. This review highlights the dysregulation of lncRNAs in the development of MS in patients and animal models. Additionally, the potential clinical relevance of lncRNAs severed as therapeutic targets and diagnostic markers are discussed.
Diterpenoid lactones (DLs), a group of furan-containing compounds found in Dioscorea bulbifera L. (DB), have been reported to be associated with hepatotoxicity. Different hepatotoxicities of these DLs have been observed in vitro, but reasonable explanations for the differential hepatotoxicity have not been provided. Herein, the present study aimed to confirm the potential factors that contribute to varied hepatotoxicity of four representative DLs (diosbulbins A, B, C, F). In vitro toxic effects were evaluated in various cell models and the interactions between DLs and CYP3A4 at the atomic level were simulated by molecular docking. Results showed that DLs exhibited varied cytotoxicities, and that CYP3A4 played a modulatory role in this process. Moreover, structural variation may cause different affinities between DLs and CYP3A4, which was positively correlated with the observation of cytotoxicity. In addition, analysis of the glutathione (GSH) conjugates indicated that reactive intermediates were formed by metabolic oxidation that occurred on the furan moiety of DLs, whereas, GSH consumption analysis reflected the consistency between the reactive metabolites and the hepatotoxicity. Collectively, our findings illustrated that the metabolic regulation played a crucial role in generating the varied hepatotoxicity of DLs.
Three new secoiridoid glycosides, named lonijapoglycol A ( 1 ), aldosecolohanin C ( 2 ) and aldosecolohanin B ( 3 ), together with three known ones ( 4–6 ), have been isolated from the flower the buds of Lonicera japonica. All the structures were identified by spectroscopic analyses. Lonijapoglycol A ( 1 ) expressed significant anti-inflammatory activity to inhibit the release of β-glu-curonidase induced by platelet-activating factor in rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes with an IC50 value of 3.76 μmol·L−1.
Purpurolides D–F ( 1 – 3 ), three new polyoxygenated bergamotanes bearing a 6/4/5/5 tetracyclic ring system, were isolated from the endophytic fungus Penicillium purpurogenum IMM 003. Their structures were unambiguously elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic data analyses, 13C NMR chemical shifts calculations coupled with the DP4+ probability method, and the calculated and experimental electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. Compounds 1 – 3 showed significant inhibitory activity against pancreatic lipase (PL). The result highlights that the presence of 3-hydroxylated decanoic acid moiety at C-14 is important for increasing the inhibition potency against PL.
KangFuXinYe (KFX), the ethanol extract of the dried whole body of Periplaneta americana, is a well-known important Chinese medicine preparation that has been used to treat digestive diseases such as gastric ulcers for many years in China. However, its therapeutic effect and mechanism are not yet well understood. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the gastro-protective effects of KangFuXinYe (KFX) in indomethacin-induced gastric damage. Rats were randomly divided into six groups as follows: control, treated with indomethacin (35 mg·kg−1), different dosages of KFX (2.57, 5.14 and 10.28 mL·kg−1, respectively) plus indomethacin, and sucralfate (1.71 mL·kg−1) plus indomethacin. After treatment, rat serum, stomach and gastric homogenates were collected for biochemical tests and examination of histopathology firstly. Rat serum was further used for metabolomics analysis to research possible mechanisms. Our results showed that KFX treatment alleviated indomethacin-induced histopathologic damage in rat gastric mucosa. Meanwhile, its treatment significantly increased cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) levels in rat serum and gastric mucosa. Moreover, KFX decreased cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels. Nine metabolites were identified which intensities significantly changed in gastric damage rats, including 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, indoxylsulfuric acid, indolelactic acid, 4-hydroxyindole, pantothenic acid, isobutyryl carnitine, 3-methyl-2-oxovaleric acid, sphingosine 1-phosphate, and indometacin. These metabolic deviations came to closer to normal levels after KFX intervention. The results indicate that KFX (10.28 mL·kg−1) exerts protective effects on indomethacin-induced gastric damage by possible mechanisms of action (regulating tryptophan metabolism, protecting the mitochondria, and adjusting lipid metabolism, and reducing excessive indomethacin).