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cDNA cloning of a novel lectin that induce cell apoptosis from Artocarpus hypargyreus
LUO Yu, ZENG Lin-Jie, LIU Xiao-Qin, LI Lu, ZENG Qi-Yan
2021, 19(2): 81-89. doi: 10.1016/S1875-5364(21)60009-2
We isolated a novel lectin (AHL) from Artocarpus hypargyreus Hance and showed its immunomodulatory activities. In this study, the amino acid sequence of AHL was determined by cDNA sequencing. AHL cDNA (875bp) contains a 456-bp open reading frame (ORF), which encodes a protein with 151 amino acids. AHL is a new member of jacalin-related lectin family (JRLs), which share high sequence similarities to KM+ and Morniga M, and contain the conserved carbohydrate binding domains. The antitumor activity of AHL was also explored using Jurkat T cell lines. AHL exhibits a strong binding affinity to cell membrane, which can be effectively inhibited by methyl-α-D-galactose. AHL inhibits cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner through apoptosis, evidenced by morphological changes, phosphatidylserine externalization, poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage, Bad and Bax up-regulation, and caspase-3 activation. We further showed that the activation of ERK and p38 signaling pathways is involved for the pro-apoptotic effect of AHL.
Protective effect of paeoniflorin on H2O2 induced Schwann cells injury based on network pharmacology and experimental validation
ZHANG Di, YANG Bing, CHANG Shi-Quan, MA Sheng-Suo, SUN Jian-Xin, YI Lin, LI Xing, SHI Hui-Mei, JING Bei, ZHENG Ya-Chun, ZHANG Chun-Lan, CHEN Feng-Guo, ZHAO Guo-Ping
2021, 19(2): 90-99. doi: 10.1016/S1875-5364(21)60010-9
This study was to investigate the protective effect of paeoniflorin (PF) on hydrogen peroxide-induced injury. Firstly, “SMILES” of PF was searched in Pubchem and further was used for reverse molecular docking in Swiss Target Prediction database to obtain potential targets. Injury-related molecules were obtained from GeenCards database, and the predicted targets of PF for injury treatment were selected by Wayne diagram. For mechanism analysis, the protein-protein interactions were constructed by String, and the KEGG analysis was conducted in Webgestalt. Then, cell viability and cytotoxicity assay were established by CCK8 assay. Also, the experimental cells were allocated to control, model (200 μmol·L−1 H2O2), SB203580 10 μmol·L−1 (200 μmol·L−1 H2O2 + SB203580 10 μmol·L−1), PF 50 μmol·L−1 (200 μmol·L−1 H2O2 + PF 50 μmol·L−1), and PF 100 μmol·L−1 (200 μmol·L−1 H2O2 + PF 100 μmol·L−1) groups. We measured the intracellular ROS, Hoechst 33258 staining, cell apoptosis, the levels of Bcl-xl, Bcl-2, Caspase-3, Cleaved-caspase3, Cleaved-caspase7, TRPA1, TRPV1, and the phosphorylation expression of p38MAPK. There are 96 potential targets that may be associated with PF for injury treatment. Then, we chose the “Inflammatory mediator regulation of TRP channels” pathway for the experimental verification from the first 10 KEGG pathway. In experimental verification, H2O2 decreased the cell viability moderately (P < 0.05), and 100 μmol·L−1 PF increased the cell viability significantly (P < 0.05). Depending on the difference of intracellular ROS fluorescence intensity, PF inhibited H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species production in Schwann cells. In Hoechst 33258 staining, PF reversed the condensed chromatin and apoptotic nuclei following H2O2 treatment. Moreover, Flow cytometry results showed that PF could substantially inhibit H2O2 induced apoptosis (P < 0.05). Pretreatment with PF obviously reduced the levels of Caspase3, Cleaved-caspase3, Cleaved-caspase7, TRPA1, TRPV1, and the phosphorylation expression of p38MAPK after H2O2 treatment (P < 0.05), increased the levels of Bcl-2, and Bcl-xl (P < 0.05). PF inhibited Schwann cell injury and apoptosis induced by hydrogen peroxide, which mechanism was linked to the inhibition of phosphorylation of p38MAPK.
Effects of Huatan Jiangzhuo decoction on diet-induced hyperlipidemia and gene expressions in rats
REN Qi, LIU Xiao-Qi, ZHOU Xiao-Wen, ZHOU Xuan, FANG Ge, WANG Bin, WANG Yan-Ping, PENG Dan-Hong, LI Xian-Tao
2021, 19(2): 100-111. doi: 10.1016/S1875-5364(21)60011-0
Huatan Jiangzhuo decoction (HJD) is a combination of six traditional Chinese medicines that were used for lipid metabolism-related disorders, but its efficacy and underlying mechanisms have not been explored by modern research strategies. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic role of HJD in determining the transcriptome level. Hyperlipidemia model was established by feeding Sprague–Dawley rats with high-fat diet. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected by high-through transcriptome sequencing, followed by gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis. The total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels in hyperlipidemia model rats were significantly increased, whereas high-density lipoprotein (HDL) concentration decreased when compared to normal rats, and HJD significantly downregulated TC concentrations and liver coefficient in the hyperlipidemia rats. Histology staining showed that HDJ greatly recovered the lipid accumulation in rat hepatic stellate cells and aortic arch vascular wall thickness of hyperlipidemia rats. One thousand nine hundred and thirty-six DEGs were identified in the HJD-treated hyperlipidemia rats, which were associated with various biological processes and signaling pathways such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, AMP-activated Protein Kinase , and insulin signaling pathways. Quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction further confirmed the downregulated expression of cholesterol 7-α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), liver orphan receptor (LXRα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), and Sterol Response Element-Binding Protein 1c (SREBP1c) genes in hyperlipidemia rats treated with HJD. Our data first elucidated the gene expression profile of high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia in rats after HJD treatment, and lipid metabolism-related genes (CYP7A1, LXRα, PPARγ, and SREBP1c) may be potentially biomarkers for HJD-alleviated hyperlipidemia.
Mangiferin inhibited neuroinflammation through regulating microglial polarization and suppressing NF-κB, NLRP3 pathway
LEI Li-Yan, WANG Rui-Cheng, PAN Ya-Lei, YUE Zheng-Gang, ZHOU Rui, XIE Pei, TANG Zhi-Shu
2021, 19(2): 112-119. doi: 10.1016/S1875-5364(21)60012-2
Inflammation plays important roles in the progress of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. Microglia is responsible for the homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS), and involved in the neuroinflammation. Therefore, it could be potential in treatment of neurodegenerative diseases to suppress the microglia-mediated neuroinflammation. Mangiferin, a major glucoside of xanthone in Anemarrhena Rhizome, has anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetes, and anti-oxidative properties. However, the effect of mangiferin on the inflammatary responses of microglia cells are still poorly understand. In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which mangiferin inhibited inflammation in LPS-induced BV2 microglia cells. BV2 cells were pretreatment with mangiferin followed by LPS stimulation. In vitro assays, NO and cytokines production were quantified. Western blot and immunocytochemistry were used to examine the effect of mangiferin on the polarization of BV2 cells and signaling pathway. The results showed that mangiferin treatment significantly reduced NO, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α production, also reduced the mRNA and protein of iNOS and COX-2, promoted the polarization of inflammatory toward anti-inflammatory, and inhibited activation of NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome. These data suggest that mangiferin has an anti-neuroinflammatory property via regulating microglia macrophage polarization and suppressing NF-κB and NLRP3 signaling pathway, and may act as a potential natural therapeutic candidate for neuroinflammatory diseases.
Rhodiola crenulata extract decreases fatty acid oxidation and autophagy to ameliorate pulmonary arterial hypertension by targeting inhibiton of acylcarnitine in rats
REN Huan-Huan, NIU Zheng, GUO Rui, FU Min, LI Hai-Ru, ZHANG Xuan-Yu, YAO Li
2021, 19(2): 120-133. doi: 10.1016/S1875-5364(21)60013-4
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating pulmonary circulation disease lacking high-efficiency therapeutics. The present study aims to decipher the therapeutic mechanism of Rhodiola crenulata, a well-known traditional chinese medicine with cardiopulmonary protection capacity, on PAH by exploiting functional lipidomics. The rat model with PAH was successfully established for first, following Rhodiola crenulata water extract (RCE) treatment, then analysis of chemical constituents of RCE was performed, additional morphologic, hemodynamic, echocardiographic measurements were examined, further targeted lipidomics assay was performed to identify differential lipidomes, at last accordingly mechanism assay was done by combining qRT-PCR, Western blot and ELISA. Differential lipidomes were identified and characterized to differentiate the rats with PAH from healthy controls, mostly assigned to acylcarnitines, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelin associated with the PAH development. Excitingly, RCE administration reversed high level of decadienyl-L-carnitine by the modulation of metabolic enzyme CPT1A in mRNA and protein level in serum and lung in the rats with PAH. Furthermore, RCE was observed to reduce autophagy, confirmed by significantly inhibited PPARγ, LC3B, ATG7 and upregulated p62, and inactivated LKB1-AMPK signal pathway. Notably, we accurately identified the constituents in RCE, and delineated the therapeutic mechansim that RCE ameliorated PAH through inhibition of fatty acid oxidation and autophagy. Altogether, RCE might be a potential therapeutic medicine with multi-targets characteristics to prevent the progression of PAH. This novel findings pave a critical foundation for the use of RCE in the treatment of PAH.
Artemisia kruhsiana leaf extract induces autophagic cell death in human prostate cancer cells
LEE Se-Eun, SIVTSEVA Sardana, LIM Chiyeon, OKHLOPKOVA Zhanna, CHO Suin
2021, 19(2): 134-142. doi: 10.1016/S1875-5364(21)60014-6
Some species of Artemisia have been reported to induce apoptosis and autophagy, but little is known of the apoptotic and autophagic effects of the stems and leaves of Artemisia kruhsiana Bess. (AkB). This study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant and anti-autophagic effects of the methanol extracts of the stems (EAkBs) and leaves (EAkBl) of AkB on human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. The antioxidant effects of EAkBs and EAkBl were measured using in vitro total flavonoid and total phenolic assays and a free radical scavenging assay. The effects of EAkBl on cell viability, apoptosis, autophagy, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and protein expression levels were also investigated. EAkBl was found to induce apoptosis, autophagy, and intracellular ROS generation in PC-3 cells. In terms of protein levels, EAkBl reduced phospho (p)-protein kinase B (AKT)/AKT, p-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/mTOR, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)/Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) ratios, and the activations of beclin 1/β-actin and microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3)Ⅱ/LC3Ⅰratios in PC-3 cells. The results of this study indicate EAkBl has antioxidant and anticancer effects on prostate cancer cells, and that these effects are associated with suppressions of p-AKT, p-mTOR, Bcl-2, and Bax, and the activations of beclin 1 and LC3. Our results indicate EAkBl has potential as a treatment for prostate cancer.
Jiedu Sangen decoction inhibits chemoresistance to 5-fluorouracil of colorectal cancer cells by suppressing glycolysis via PI3K/AKT/HIF-1α signaling pathway
SUN Lei-Tao, ZHANG Le-Yin, SHAN Fei-Yu, SHEN Min-He, RUAN Shan-Ming
2021, 19(2): 143-152. doi: 10.1016/S1875-5364(21)60015-8
Drug resistance is a major obstacle in the development of effective colorectal cancer (CRC) therapy. Our study aimed to explore the reversal abilities of Jiedu Sangen decoction (JSD) on the 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) resistance and its underlying molecular mechanisms. Expression changes in HIF-1 of CRC tissues were firstly revealed by bioinformatics analysis. Afterwards, cell viabilities of JSD and 5-FU treatments on 5-FU resistant human colon cancer cells (HCT-8/5-FU) were determined. Expressions of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (AKT)/p-AKT, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1α), as well as glycolysis related proteins such as L-lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), Glucose transporter type 1 (Glut1), Hexokinase 2 (HKII), and cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase (Caspase) family members in HCT-8/5-FU cells, HIF-1α silenced HCT-8/5-FU cells and tumor tissues were detected by western blotting. HIF-1α was found over expressed in CRC tissues according to public available datasets in Oncomine. Growth inhibition rates of HCT-8/5-FU cells were increased along with the increase of JSD concentrations. JSD caused down-regulated HIF-1α, PI3K, AKT/p-AKT, HKII and Glut1, as well as up-regulated Caspase3 and Caspase9 in HCT-8/5-FU cells and tumor tissues. In HIF-1α silenced HCT-8/5-FU cells, synergistic group showed significantly reduced expression levels of PI3K, AKT, p-AKT. Additionally, up-regulated expressions of Caspase6 and Caspase7 were observed. JSD combined with 5-FU also exhibited obvious inhibitory efficiency on tumor growth in vivo. JSD may reverse 5-FU resistance by suppressing glycolysis via PI3K/AKT/HIF-1α signaling pathway, thereby inhibiting glycolysis and induce apoptosis to enhance anti-tumor activity.
The effects of borneol on the pharmacokinetics and brain distribution of tanshinone IIA, salvianolic acid B and ginsenoside Rg1 in Fufang Danshen preparation in rats
ZHANG Jie, LIU Sheng-Lan, WANG Hui, SHI Li-Ying, LI Jin-Ping, JIA Lu-Juan, XIE Bao-Ping
2021, 19(2): 153-160. doi: 10.1016/S1875-5364(21)60016-X
Fufang Danshen preparation (FDP) is consisted of Salviae Miltiorrhizar Radix et Rhizoma (Danshen), Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma (Sanqi) and Borneolum Syntheticum (borneol). FDP is usually used to treat myocardial ischemia hypoxia, cerebral ischemia and alzheimer’s disease, etc. In the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases, borneol is usually used to promote the absorption and distribution of the bioactive components to proper organs, especially to the brain. The purpose of this study is investigating the effects of borneol on the pharmacokinetics and brain distribution of tanshinone IIA (TS IIA), salvianolic acid B (SAB) and ginsenoside Rg1 in FDP. Male healthy Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were given Danshen extracts, Sanqi extracts (Panax notoginseng saponins) or simultaneously administered Danshen extracts, Sanqi extracts and borneol. Plasma and brain samples were collected at different points in time. The concentration of TS IIA, SAB and Rg1 was determined by UPLC-MS/MS method. The main pharmacokinetics parameters of plasma and brain tissue were calculated by using Phoenix WinNolin 6.1 software. In comparison with Danshen and Sanqi alone, there were significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters of TS IIA, SAB and Rg1, and the brain distribution of SAB and TS IIA when Danshen, Sanqi and borneol were administrated together. Borneol statistically significant shortened tmax of TS IIA, SAB and Rg1 in plasma and brain, increased the bioavaiability of Rg1, inhibited metabolism of Rg1 and enhanced the transport of TS IIA and SAB to brain. These results indicated that borneol could affect the multiple targets components and produce synergistic effects. Through accelerating the intestinal absorption and brain distribution, borneol caused the effective ingredients of Danshen and Sanqi to play a quicker therapeutic role and improved the therapeutic effect.